C. Spearman, 1904 (выделение — мое):
«To-day, it is difficult to realize that only as recently as I879 Wundt first obtained from the authorities of Leipsic University one little room for the then novel purpose of a «psychological laboratory. »
In twenty-four years, not only has this modest beginning expanded into a suite of apartments admirably equipped with elaborate apparatus and thronged with students from the most distant quarters of the globe, but all over Germany and in almost every other civilized country have sprung up a host of similar institutions, each endeavoring to outbid the rest in perfection. The brief space of time has sufficed for Experimental Psychology to become a firmly established science, everywhere drawing to itself the most vigorous energies and keenest intellects.
But in spite of such a brilliant career, strangely enough this new branch of investigation still meets with resolute, wide spread, and even increasing opposition. Nor are its enemies at all confined to belated conservatives or crotchety reactionaries; they are rather to be found among the most youthful schools of thought; their strength may be in some measure estimated from the very elaborate apology which one of the best known experimental psychologists has lately found himself called upon to utter on behalf of his profession»
When such fundamental expectations are false, as may happen in space travel, unprecedented errors of judgement result (pp. 229–37). In the early 1960s, Gregory (personal communication) was invited to give two lectures at NASA’s Houston Space Centre, after the ‘inexplicable’ failure (twice) of their astronauts to dock in space—a simple enough manoeuvre, they’d thought. The problem, Gregory told them, was the highly unusual visual environment. Shadows weren’t helpful, because of the anomalous position of the sun; and familiar distance cues were missing, because there were no physical objects to be seen, apart from the space dock itself. (The stars weren’t visible as three-dimensional objects, but as mere spots of light.) After further training with these psychological matters in mind, the astronauts on the next voyage managed to dock successfully.
M. Boden. Mind as Machine, 2006, p. 315.
Никогда не знал о том, что в конце 40х в моде также была пора Нового Взгляда:
The New Look in haute couture was a heady liberation. The austere fashions of wartime gave way in 1947 to the glorious full, long, skirts of Christian Dior’s A-line. And, with fabric rationing ended, the new dresses soon migrated joyfully from catwalk to high street.
Much the same was true of the ‘New Look’ in perception, launched around the same time. The major couturier was Bruner (1915– ). The British stylist Richard Gregory (1923– ) was important too, doing even more than Bruner to make mind-as-machine fashionable on the high street. But his New Look research was begun after Bruner’s, and was narrower in scope, as we’ll see. It was largely thanks to Bruner’s imaginative cutting and stitching that American psychologists by 1960 were free at last to study full-skirted perception (instead of the narrower ‘sensory discrimination’), to recognize
joy (or anyway, values), and even to champion models—not on the catwalk, but in the mind/brain.
M. Boden. Mind as Machine, 2006, p. 298.
Jacob Howhy, «Functional integration and the mind»:
In brain imaging science, this represents a move away from ‘blob-ology’, with a focus on local areas of activity, and towards functional integration, with a focus on the functional and dynamic causal relations between areas of activity.
Bela Julesz: «So tell me, Georg, what do you think happiness is?»
George Von Bekésy: «That is easy, Bela. Happiness is a good experiment» .
(Bela Julesz, Dialogues on Perception, 1995)